More educational ramblings to share...
In teaching group exercise, and more frequently in Crossfit, I've experienced and seen many shoulder injuries. What may cause these injuries is weakness in the middle trapezius and serratus anterior. Most group classes and Crossfit include tons pushing and pressing movements without tons of pulling to counter balance all the anterior work. Even pull ups cannot address the lack pulling alone, but including seated rows, band rows from high and low angles, as well as scapular stabilization exercises can greatly reduce the risk of injury for group class and Crossfit participants. To further understand the shoulder joint, below is a description of the relationships between various parts of the shoulder and the muscles involved in upward rotation of the scapula, as well as the description of one shoulder condition that inhibits healthy movement patterns.
, may result in the failure of the scapular force couple because of pain and stiffness that can inhibit normal movement at the shoulder joint. Although the cause of frozen shoulder is unclear, it is characterized by the process of thickening and contracture of the capsule surrounding the shoulder joint (Soviero, Gucciardi, & Geraci, 2008). When a client is experiencing frozen shoulder their mobility will be greatly reduced, particularly in external rotation and overhead movements. The three muscles that are traditionally attributed as upward rotators are the upper trapezius, lower trapezius and serratus anterior. Due to the complexity of the shoulder joint, there are many conditions that may cause force couple failure, but frozen shoulder can be treated with low load stretching, end range tensile stress, and progressive loading (Donatelli, Ruivo, Thurner & Ibrahim, 2014). Most often frozen shoulder will be improved through treatment and then scapular motion can be reassessed to see if there are other factors inhibiting force coupling such as forward head posture, rounded shoulders or hyperkyhposis.